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第十七届中国北京国际科技产业博览会

 

金融助力未来:亚太可持续发展的技术与创新

联合国副秘书长兼联合国亚太经社会执行秘书
沙姆沙德•阿赫塔尔

 

全国政协副主席兼科学技术部部长
万钢先生阁下,
 
各位尊贵的来宾,
媒体朋友,
女士们,先生们,

很高兴再次来到北京。

科技领域振奋人心的最新进展以及相关突破性发展和创新,为人类活动的各个领域创造了卓越的知识,带来了独特的变革。这对我们的生活生产方式以及企业的运行方式都产生了深刻影响。举例来说,运算功能强大的电脑能够处理最复杂的数据、开发创新型遗传与生产方法。信息和通信技术(信通技术)大发展通过贸易、资金流以及强化的交流沟通将世界经济连为一体。

如今,只需轻击鼠标,我们就能跨越一切地理疆界,徜徉在无尽的人类知识信息库中。信息分享平台正在创造大数据,其存储、互联与加工为我们提供了空前广阔的机会,使我们能够更好地理解消费者行为、诊断疾病、规划医疗服务,以及妥善应对全球气候变化。

子弹头列车提高了我们的时间和空间移动性。得益于更高效的基础设施领域的创新发展,生产活动已经跨越国界,经商成本也因此不断降低。

世界范围内的跨学科和跨机构合作加快了我们对人类基因组的研究。目前,我们正在破解DNA密码,以提供更准确的医学诊断和更有效的治疗方案。疫苗和救生药物延长了人类寿命,生物技术促进了粮食、生物燃料、家用产品和医疗救治的发展,遗传工程技术的前景也愈加光明。

这些发展情况使我们确信,尽管随着人口、城市化、不可持续的消费、卫生医疗以及环境威胁等方面的压力与日俱增,我们面临巨大而庞杂的全球挑战,但科学、技术和创新(STI)提供了克服这些挑战的机会。

需要进一步加强知识和创意,以便更好地应对各类接踵而来的挑战。尽管财富积累与创造不断增加,有经验证据表明科学、技术和创新才是提高生产力的助推器,并且是进一步提升可持续增长的关键;显然,更多付出将带来更多发展红利。

技术改进既可能源于创新(开发自身新技术),也可能来自采用和适应(引入在别处开发的技术,根据需要进行适应性改进)。正是得益于技术推广和扩展,我们才能从无数科学、技术和创新成就以及投资中普遍受益。

因此,促进科学、技术和创新健康发展至关重要,这还有助于解决我们最大的发展难题。我们必须考虑到: 

    科学、技术和创新尚未被有效纳入发展议程。时至今日,各种全球发展论述对科学、技术和创新的关注仍然不足,但作为实现联合国2015年可持续发展议程的关键,它正在快速成为人们关注的焦点。

    仅在科技领域埋头苦干无益于加快创新。今后,国家政策框架必须创造出一种以更综合的方式促进科学、技术和创新发展的文化,只有综合考虑,它们才能成为促进发展形势变革的“关键因素”。

    必须更全面传播信通技术惠益,采用动态办法进行创新适应和推广。从大数据的强大力量,到简化日常任务的最新移动应用产品,尖端技术带来了加快经济增长、大幅提高生产力和促进社会融合的机会,还提供打击贫困、不公平与跨境挑战的新工具。

    占世界贫困人口三分之二的亚洲贫民迫切需要通过适应和采用“跟上”技术发展大潮。例如,东亚自身即有能力成为主要的创新者,并可通过推动南南合作发挥新中枢的作用。

    教育和研究的质量始终是推广科学、技术和创新的一项切实挑战。必须在全球范围内大力推广为丰富创意、改善学习和更有效地创造知识所采取的措施,以确保下一代人能够把我们取得的科学、技术和创新成就推向新的高度。

    对研究与开发(研发)的投资不足始终制约着科学、技术和创新的发展。有效释放科学、技术和创新潜力需要适足的支持与资金。中国即具备促进创新的有利条件。通过利用竞争优势,中国在2013年筹集到了2,840亿美元的研发经费——仅一年间就增长了22%。 按照这种增速计算,中国的研发支出可能将占到国内生产总值的2%,并有望在2018年超过欧洲的研发投入,到2022年还将进一步赶超美国。

    清洁能源技术等行业获得了最有保障的投入。根据缓解气候变化须把气温升高控制在2摄氏度以内的前提计算,国际能源机构预测,未来十年,对清洁能源的年投资额还将增加6,300亿美元。各国政府有能力开拓市场和制定有助于加快清洁能源技术开发与部署的政策,这些技术的绝大部分潜力尚未释放。

亚洲在科技与创新方面已经取得了一些杰出的成就,但仍需继续努力……

在反映科技与创新动态的全球创新指数 中,日本、韩国等亚太地区国家排名很高,但仍落后于美国。

中国的排名也较高,但在支持性体制和市场精细化方面必须有所改善,才能与其他科技与创新强国一争高下,人力资本和基础设施方面也必须做出更多努力。

越来越多的全球创新中心在亚洲发展中国家落户。尽管如此,亚洲和太平洋地区最不发达国家的得分仍然很低,亚太地区发展中国家只有不足6%的人口可以使用固定宽带。例如,在缅甸,覆盖率仅为0.01%;在韩国,99.6%的年轻人至少已在英特网上活跃了五年;而在东帝汶,这一数字不足1%

换言之,亚洲和太平洋地区仍是世界上数字鸿沟最为严重的地区。在信息和通信技术领域,科技与创新或许最能发挥其推动变革的潜力,它让我们更加高效地管理教育、卫生和金融服务,然而也正是在这一领域,亚太地区的数字鸿沟最为显著。

信息和通信技术鸿沟表现出极为明显的性别差异——亚洲和太平洋地区的妇女和女童,无论其所在地、收入水平或年龄,对各种形式的信息和通信技术的使用都少于男性。信息和通信技术鸿沟还体现在农村地区,那里获得的服务不足,或完全未接入网络。这种状况的长期持续加剧了“准入陷阱”——使需求受限,新的服务商不愿进入市场。

这些都阻碍了信息和通信技术的发展,需要得到解决。目前,信息和通信技术的潜力得不到真正发挥,我们必须先充分整合全国性的基础设施网络,使其价格低廉、稳定可靠,并能为所有人提供服务。大规模投资建设点对点协议基础设施,并在区域合作框架的支持下出台更有力的公共政策,将有助于改善信息和通信技术的连通情况。

除考虑政策、体制和监管框架,以及技能组合之外,我们还需要应对科技与创新融资方面的其他重大挑战——尤其是为创新、研发,以及中小创业企业提供更多支持。

为了提供更好的基础设施,以改善整个区域的宽带英特网可用性,使其价格更低廉,亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会(亚太经社会)启动了亚洲信息高速公路倡议,本组织成员国还将于10月举行会议,讨论利用亚洲高速公路和泛亚铁路网络来加强信息和通信技术基础设施的可选方案。

将科技与创新列为未来主流议程的政策议程

上文已经谈及科技与创新方面的若干具体问题,但以下几方面也将有助于促进科技与创新。

首先,改善商业环境,使企业家们能够仅以经过计算的风险,便将想法转变成商业应用。同时,应以贸易和投资便利、有效监管与公司治理、金融和商业教育与培训,以及可靠的基础设施作为补充。提高并严格执行高科技和知识产业的质量标准也很重要。

其次,便利高质量的外商直接投资,将投资者纳入价值链。要让中小企业融入全球和区域的生产和供应链条,就需要引导外商直接投资流向中小企业,并让他们能够及时以较低的成本开展研发、获得技术和其他激励。

第三,政策创新和技术融资有助于吸引私人投资。国家创新融资项目应利用股本融资和举债融资两种可选方式,并借助供应链融资来改善流动性和信贷可用性。由于中小企业缺少抵押品且信息不对称,信贷担保和资本市场发展一样,也是一种关键的支持机制。

第四,促进人力资源开发,以提高对创新和技术的吸纳能力。必须强调,通过优质的相关教育获得学习成果,建立商业和技术孵化器和园区(也可吸引外商直接投资),降低从事商业活动的整体成本。马来西亚的多媒体超级走廊是一个很好的例证,它提供了创新所需的基础设施。

第五,利用贸易自由化来支持生产力和创新。要提高竞争力就必须消除贸易壁垒,包括提供贸易便利,从而降低进口成本,增加出口机会。

第六,改善国内知识产权立法和执法:挑战在于找到适合各国发展阶段的知识产权保护水平。在这个方面,中国和印度在确立以发展为导向的全球知识产权制度的过程中处于关键地位。在经加密和受保护的知识产权使用方面,中国的使用量增幅最大,占2012年全球登记使用总量的24%

结论

总之,科学、技术和创新是促进进步的核心,也是当今推动发展的最有力手段之一。

我希望诸位从我的发言中收获以下三点主要信息:

•现有的和新出现的各种挑战带来的压力与日俱增,我们必须重新审视科技与创新——并承诺开展更好的合作——尤其是在区域内和南-南合作的框架下;

•要使可持续发展发挥最大的影响力并取得最大的成功,我们必须将科技与创新作为2015年后发展议程的一个推动力;以及

•科技与创新需要更多的培育与支持——尤其是在筹资方面——以加快创新研发,推动更广泛的知识共享,促进最佳技术的采用和调适。

如果能够得到适当的支持、共享并有较好的针对性,科技与创新将在消除贫穷、饥饿、贫困和不平等的工作中发挥重要作用。它将帮助我们跨越旧的方法,克服资源稀缺,逆转持续了系带人的环境恶化。

亚太经济体驱动着全球复苏,我们面临着一份共同的责任,要确保科技与创新手段得到利用,让所有人享有有尊严的生活,构建一个我们所希望的、包容的、共同繁荣的未来。

谢谢。(中文稿件引自第十七届科博会官网

 

  

Financing the Future: Technology and Innovation for Asia-Pacific Sustainable Development

Speech by Dr. Shamshad Akhtar, Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations & Executive Secretary of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Your Excellency, Mr. Wan Gang,

Vice Chairman of the CPPCC and Minister of Science and Technology

 Excellencies,

Members of the Media,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

 It is a pleasure to be back in China.

 Exciting developments in science and technology and associated breakthroughs and innovations have generated phenomenal knowledge and exceptional changes in every field of human endeavour. This has profoundly impacted the way we live, the way we produce, and the way our businesses operate.  For instance, the powerful computers manipulate the most complex data, and create innovative genetic and production solutions. Advancements in information and communications technology (ICT) has integrated the world economy through trade, capital flows, and enhanced communication.  

With the click of a mouse we can now surf the cumulative store of human knowledge across all geographical boundaries. Information sharing platforms are generating big data, whose storage, interlinkages and processing, offers tremendous opportunities to help us, amongst others, better understand customer behaviour, diagnose diseases, plan healthcare services, and model our responses to the changing global climate.

 Bullet trains have enhanced our mobility in both time and space. Innovations in more efficient infrastructure have spread production beyond national boundaries, reducing the costs of doing business.

 Collaboration across different disciplines and between institutes around the world has stepped-up our research of human genome, and we are now decoding DNA to offer deeper medical diagnosis and better treatments. Vaccines and life-saving drugs have enhanced longevity, and bio-technology has boosted crops, biofuels, household products and medical treatments, with genetic engineering technology holding even greater promise.

These developments assure us that while global challenges are abundant as stresses grow, bethey of population, urbanization, unsustainable consumption, health, or threats to our environment, Science, Technology and Innovation (STI)offer opportunities to outpace these challenges.

 Knowledge and creativity need to be further enhanced to meet the immense scope of our growing threats. Even though wealth accumulation and generation has grown, and there is empirical evidence that STI are productivity enhancers and the keys to higher and more sustainable growth, it is clear that greater efforts will have high development dividends.

 Technological improvements can come from either innovation (developing one’s own new technologies) or adoption and adaptation (introducing technologies that have been devised elsewhere and, if necessary, adapting them). Without technology diffusion and scale, there can be nouniversal benefit from our myriad achievements and investments in STI.

 Nurturing STI is therefore critical, and will help address some of our greatest development dilemmas. Amongst our key considerations must be that:

 ·         STI has not been well-integrated in development agendas. Until now, STI has lagged in the global development discourse, but as a vital enabler of the United Nations post-2015 sustainable development agenda, it is rapidly taking centre-stage. 

·         Working in silos on science and technology will not yield fast innovation. Going forward, national policy frameworks must develop a culture of working on STI in amore integrated manner, as together they can be ‘game changers’ – facilitating shifts in the development landscape. 

·         ICT benefits must be more fully deployed, with dynamic approaches to the adaptation and diffusion of innovation. From the power of big data, to the latest mobile applications which simplify everyday tasks, cutting-edge technology offers opportunities to accelerate economic growth, boost productivity, increase social inclusion, and provide new tools in the fight against poverty, inequality, and cross-border challenges. 

·         There is a growing need for Asia’s two-thirds of the world’s poor to “catch up” with technology, both through adaptation and adoption. East Asia, for instance, has the potential to become a major innovator in its own right[1] and can serve as a new hub through the promotion of South-South collaboration.  

·         Quality of education and research has been a real challenge in the promotion of STI. The move to greater creativity, better learning, and more effective knowledge generation has to be promoted across the globe to ensure our next generation can take our STI achievements to new heights. 

·         Low levels of investment in research and development (R&D) have been a real constraint on STI. To realize STI potential requires the right kind of support and finance. China is in a unique position to nurture innovation. Exploiting its competitive edge, China already raised annual R&D spending to $284 billion in 2013 – up 22 per cent in just one year.[2] At these rates of growth, China’s R&D spending is likely to reach 2 percent of GDP, and will likely surpass Europe’s R&D investment by 2018, and the United States by 2022.

·      Greater levels of investment are especially warranted in sectors such as clean energy technology. Under the 2 Degree Scenario for mitigating climate change, IEA forecasts annual investments in clean energy will need to rise over the next decade by $630 billion. Governments have the power to create markets and policies that accelerate development and deployment of clean energy technologies, yet the potential of these technologies remains largely untapped.

 To its credit, Asia has made some great achievements in STI, but more is needed…

 Capturing STI dynamism, the Global Innovation Index,[3] ranks some Asia-Pacific countries, such as Japan and the Republic of Korea quite high, although still lagging behind the United States.

 China’s ranking is good, although some improvements in supportive institutions and market sophistication are needed if it is to rival other STI giants, and more effort is warranted on human capital and infrastructure.

 Global innovation hubs are also increasingly located in developing Asia. Yet with all this dynamism, the least developed countries of Asia and the Pacific score particularly poorly, and less than 6 per cent of people in developing Asia-Pacific have access to fixed broadband. In Myanmar, for instance, there is just 0.01 per cent penetration, and in the Republic of Korea 99.6 per cent of young people have been active on the Internet for at least five years, while in Timor-Leste this figure is less than one per cent.

 Asia and the Pacific is, in other words, still the most digitally divided region in the world. It is in ICT where STI has perhaps the greatest transformative potential, allowing us to more efficiently manage education, health and financial services. It is also the sector in which Asia-Pacific’s digital divides are most evident. 

 The ICT divide is especially clear as a gender gap – with women and girls in Asia and the Pacific, irrespective of location, level of income, or age, having less access to all forms of ICTs than men. The ICT divide is also pronounced in rural areas which remain underserved, or entirely unconnected, and over time this intensifies the ‘access trap’ – limiting demand and discouraging new market entrants. 

 These impediments to ICT development need to be addressed. Currently the real potential cannot be exploited until nationally-oriented Internet infrastructure networks are well integrated, affordable and reliable, and serve all. Significant investment in PPP infrastructure, and stronger public policy backed by regional cooperative frameworks, will facilitate ICT connectivity.

 Besides looking at policy, institutional and regulatory frameworks and skill sets, it is also important for us to address other major challenges of STI financing – especially in the provision of greater support for innovation, R&D, as well as for entrepreneurial small and medium enterprises (SMEs).

 To increase the availability and affordability of broadband Internet across the region, through better infrastructure, the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) has launched the Asian Information Superhighway initiative, and our member States will be meeting in October to discuss options for strengthening ICT infrastructure by leveraging the connectivity of our Asian Highway and Trans-Asian Railway networks.

 Policy Agenda to Mainstream STI in Future Agendas

 I have already covered a number of specific STI considerations, but STI promotion can further benefit from 

  First, improving the business environment so entrepreneurs can translate ideas into commercial applications with calculated risk-taking. This should be complemented by trade and investment facilitation, effective regulations and corporate governance, financial and business education and training, and dependable infrastructure. Raising and enforcing quality standards for high-tech and knowledge-based industries will also be critical.

 Second, facilitating high-quality FDI linking investors into value chains. Integrating SMEs in global and regional production and supply chains calls for directing FDIs flows to SMES and allowing them timely and cost effective access to R&D, technology and other incentives.

 Third, policy-based innovation and technology financing helps attract private investment. National innovation financing programs should leverage both equity and debt financing options, and capitalize on supply chain finance to improve liquidity and credit availability. Since SMEs suffer from a lack of collateral and information asymmetry, credit guarantees are also a key support mechanism, as is capital market development.

 Fourth, enhancing human resource development to increase absorptive capacity for innovation and technology. There must be an emphasis on learning outcomes backed by good quality of relevant education, establishment of business and technology incubators and parks (which also attract FDI), and lowering the overall costs of doing business. The Multi-Media Super Corridor in Malaysia is a good example of providing the required infrastructure for innovation.

 Fifth, using trade liberalization to support productivity and innovation. To improve competitiveness, there is a need to remove trade barriers, including trade facilitation, to reduce import costs and expand export opportunities.

 Sixth, improving domestic intellectual property rights (IPR) legislation and enforcement: The challenge is to find the level of IPR protection appropriate to the stage of development of each country. In this regard, both China and India are in pivotal positions to shape the global intellectual property rights regime towards a more development-oriented approach. China itself accounts for the most significant increase in the use of codified and protected intellectual property rights, accounting for more than 24 per cent of global filings in 2012 [4].  

 Conclusion

 In conclusion, science, technology, and innovation are central to promoting progress and are amongst the most powerful development tools available today.

 The three main messages which I hope you will take away from my remarks are: 

·         That the rising pressures of existing and emerging challenges require a fresh look at STI – and a renewed commitment to better partnerships – especially in regional and South-South cooperation; 

·         That for sustainable development to have the greatest impact and highest chance of success, STI must be embraced as an enabler of our post-2015 development agenda; and 

·         That STI requires greater nurturing and support – especially in terms of financing – to accelerate R&D for innovation, to facilitate wider sharing of knowledge, and to enhance adoption and adaptation of best technologies. 

Properly supported, shared, and targeted STI can make the difference in our global efforts to end poverty, hunger, deprivation and inequality. They can help us to leap-frog outdated approaches, overcome resource scarcity, and reverse generations of environmental degradation. 

As our Asia-Pacific economies drive the global recovery, our shared responsibility is to ensure that the tools of STI are employed to build a life of dignity for all, and to shape the inclusive future of shared prosperity which we want. 

I thank you.


[1]      Jeffrey D Sachs and John W McArthur. 2002. “Technological Advance and Long-Term Economic Growth in Asia.” In Technology and the New Economy (edited by Chong-En Bai and Chi-Wa Yuen). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 157-185.

[2]      According to a 2013 study by the Battelle Memorial Institute.

[3]      Global Innovation Index (GII) Report.[3] This is co-published by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and ranks world economies’ innovation capabilities and results. Seewww.globalinnovationindex.org

[4]      World Intellectual Property Organization statistics database, October 2012.

 

 

 

 
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